A Better World - Volume 4

[ ] 72 A B et t er W or ld and HASHI has made determined attempts to locate control over the Ngitili in the village itself. 12 Traditional sanction mechanisms and fines (mchenya) have been the basis for enforcement. This maintenance of a range of informal organi- zational mechanisms for dealing with land use matters, which may often operate in near isolation from formal government, is an important feature. 13 The blending of the traditional and modern has clearly been an important factor in the success of Ngitili restoration. Many more individuals now make their own Ngitili and noticeably, there is more vegetation now than in 1988. The in-situ conservation programme has had a positive impact on the environment in the Shinyanga region, 14 an improve- ment made by both direct and indirect HASHI intervention. Farmers are reclaiming previously owned Ngitilis, while others plan to establish new ones. Reflections In the context of Ngitili, agropastoralism — a form of agro- forestry practiced with livestock, crops and trees — has transformed the Shinyanga landscape from almost a desert to a thriving ecosystem. In this case, agroforestry presents a clear pathway for addressing land degradation. By devolv- ing the governing structures of Shinyanga, it has contributed to increased tenure security at individual and village levels and has played a significant role in the rapid restoration of Ngitili. Hence, the provision of the appropriate conditions of decentralization, increased tenure security, and the empow- ering approaches of HASHI, combined with the adoption of traditional knowledge of Ngitili management, has enabled agropastoralism to meet the restoration goals. Ngitili also demonstrates that rural resource users play a key role in restoration and, as such, necessitate the appropriate incentives. The individual areas restored may not be large, but the number of people who individually or jointly own Ngitili is great and spread widely over the region, transforming the once degraded area. Agroforestry, an important restoration instru- ment, can be useful as an entry point to meet LDN targets and, subsequently, the Sustainable Development Goals. Community meeting in Shinyanga, Tanzania Livestock grazing in the restored Ngitili, Tanzania Image: Peter Minang Image: Peter Minang