Ferry Business - Autumn/Winter 2018

69 transport (a metric which the industry doesn’t agree is reasonable for ferries) – and a 50% reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in absolute numbers between 2008 and 2050. These binding targets will be exceedingly challenging for most operators to meet. Interferry and its members agree that work must be done globally to address climate change, but it needs that pace of change to align with what is practical and affordable for operators. Ship speed is a key factor. Slow steaming can help in the case of a trans- ocean voyage, where more than 90% of carbon dioxide emissions occur as the bulker/tanker/container ship moves along at its 14-20 knot design speed. Reducing that design speed by one or two knots will significantly reduce the emissions without necessarily calling for additional capacity. When it comes to ferries, most of the carbon dioxide is emitted during manoeuvring and when the vessel is in port. Fuel consumed at design speed during the crossing is still significant, but the emissions savings that would be made by reducing the design speed are relatively small compared to other vessel types. Speed is also of fundamental aspect for ferries running services on a tight schedule. This is why the IMO has recognised that its current Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) requirements for improving carbon dioxide performance by slowing down is no more feasible for ferries than it is for aircraft or trucks. Interferry is engaging with the IMO to develop more realistic reduction strategies, primarily through substitution of conventional fuel oils. This mainly revolves around the electrification of new and existing ships, replacing diesel fuel with LNG and other new technologies that are currently being developed. A critical step will be to develop a proper recognition of the efficiency gains made by electrification – that is, how to calculate the EEDI on a hybrid-powered ferry. Further ahead, we must also determine how to take account of shore power used to charge ferries between crossings. These are challenging goals, but I am confident the ferry industry is better placed than most maritime and transportation sectors. It will pilot many of the solutions that need to be developed for the entire maritime industry to meet current and future expectations. C&F ”Interferry and its members agree that work must be done globally to address climate change” Interferry is working with partners on the HySeas III project to launch the world’s first hydrogen-powered ocean-going passenger and car ferry

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